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Catalog Abstract 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 The aim of the paper 1.3 The organization of this paper Chapter 2 Literature review 2.1 The definition of body language 2.2 The importance of body language 2.2.1 Body language is widely used in daily life 2.2.2 Benefits body language bring to us during communication Chapter 3 Characteristics of body language from the view of Sino-America cultural communication 3.1 Same body language conveys different meaning due to different culture 3.2 Same body language represents same meaning in different cultures 3.3 Only few body language exist in unique culture, one Country or one region 3.4 Different bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦1.2 The aim of the paper Language differs from country to country, from culture to culture. As a symbol of culture, body language has different meanings in different culture. Besides, to express the same meaning, different body languages are used in different cultures. In any case, to expect the nonverbal behaviors of other cultures to match our own is unrealistic. Therefore, to have a good understanding of body language in intercultural communication is helpful to avoid culture conflicts and culture shocks. This study will focus on: 1, the definition and the importance of body language; 2, the differences of body language between China and America. It aims at not only making people have a better understanding of body language, but also a better understanding of body language in Sino-America cultural communication. 1.3 The organization of this paper The paper is composed of the following four chapters: Chapter one states the introduction, it focus on the background and the purpose of this study; Chapter two gives a literature review; including the definition of body language; the importance of body language; Chapter three presents the main characteristics discovered while comparing body languages in China and America; Chapter four provides the advices for using body languageShow MoreRelatedNonverbal Communication1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommunication is a common necessity among people. Communication is needed in order to interact with other people in almost everything within day to day life. Communication can be viewed in two subdivisions, verbal communication and nonverbal communication. 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string(81) " Business School professor Clayton ChristensenÃ¢â¬â¢s disruptive-innovation theory\." SPOTLIGHT ON PRODUCT INNOVATION Spotlight ARTWORK Josef Schulz, Form #1, 2001 C-print, 120 x 160 cm How PG Tripled Its Innovation Success Rate Inside the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new-growth factory by Bruce Brown and Scott D. Anthony 64 Harvard Business Review June 2011 HBR. ORG Bruce Brown is the chief technology o? cer of Procter Gamble. We will write a custom essay sample on How PG Tripled Its Innovation Success Rate or any similar topic only for you Order Now Scott D. Anthony is the managing director of Innosight. June 2011 Harvard Business Review 65 B SPOTLIGHT ON PRODUCT INNOVATION 66 Harvard Business Review June 2011 BACK IN 2000 the prospects for Procter GambleÃ¢â¬â¢s Tide, the biggest brand in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fabric and household care division, seemed limited. The laundry detergent had been around for more than 50 years and still dominated its core markets, but it was no longer growing fast enough to support PGÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. A decade later TideÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues have nearly doubled, helping push annual division revenues from $12 billion to almost $24 billion. The brand is surging in emerging markets, and its iconic bullÃ¢â¬â¢seye logo is turning up on an array of new products and even new businesses, from instant clothes fresheners to neighborhood dry cleaners. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t accidental. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the result of a strategic effort by PG over the past decade to systematize innovation and growth. To understand PGÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, we need to go back more than a century to the sources of its inspirationÃ¢â¬â Thomas Edison and Henry Ford. In the 1870s Edison created the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first industrial research lab, Menlo Park, which gave rise to the technologies behind the modern electric-power and motion-picture industries. Under his inspired direction, the lab churned out ideas; Edison himself ultimately held more than 1,000 patents. Edison of course understood the importance of mass production, but it was his friend Henry Ford who, decades later, perfected it. In 1910 the Ford Motor Company shifted the production of its famous Model T from the Piquette Avenue Plant, in Detroit, to its new Highland Park complex nearby. Although the assembly line wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a novel concept, Highland Park showed what it was capable of: In four years Ford slashed the time required to build a car from more than 12 hours to just 93 minutes. How could PG marry the creativity of EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s lab with the speed and reliability of FordÃ¢â¬â¢s factory? The answer its leaders devised, a Ã¢â¬Å"new-growth factory,Ã¢â¬ is still ramping up. But already it has helped the company strengthen both its core businesses and its ability to capture innovative new-growth opportunities. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to systematize the serendipity that so often sparks new-business creation carry important lessons for leaders faced with shrinking product life cycles and increasing global competition. Laying the Foundation Innovation has long been the backbone of PGÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. As chairman, president, and CEO Bob McDonald notes, Ã¢â¬Å"We know from our history that while promotions may win quarters, innovation wins decades. The company spends nearly $2 billion annually on RDÃ¢â¬âroughly 50% more than its closest competitor, and more than most other competitors combined. Each year it invests at least another $400 million in foundational consumer research to discover opportunities for innovation, conducting some 20,000 studies involving more than 5 million consumers in nearly 100 countries. Odds are that as youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading this, PG researchers are in a store somewhere observing shoppers, or even in a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s home. These investments are necessary but not sufficient to achieve PGÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation goals. Ã¢â¬Å"People will innovate for financial gain or for competitive advantage, but this can be self-limiting,Ã¢â¬ McDonald says. Ã¢â¬Å"There needs to be an emotional component as wellÃ¢â¬âa source of inspiration that motivates people. Ã¢â¬ At PG that inspiration lies in a sense of purpose driven from the top downÃ¢â¬âthe message that each innovation improves peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. At the start of the 2000s only about 15% of PGÃ¢â¬â¢s innovations were meeting revenue and profit targets. So the company launched its now well-known Connect + Develop program to bring in outside innovations and built a robust stage-gate process to help manage ideas from inception to launch. (For more on C+D, see Larry Huston and Nabil Sakkab, Ã¢â¬Å"Connect and Develop: Inside Procter GambleÃ¢â¬â¢s New Model for Innovation,Ã¢â¬ HBR March 2006. ) These actions showed early signs of raising innovation success rates, but it was clear that PG needed more breakthrough innovations. And it had to come up with them as reliably as FordÃ¢â¬â¢s factory had rolled out Model Ts. HOW PG TRIPLED ITS INNOVATION SUCCESS RATE? HBR. ORG Idea in Brief Procter Gamble is a famous innovator. Nonetheless, in the early 2000s only 15% of its innovations were meeting their revenue and pro? t targets. To address this, the company set about building organizational structures to systematize innovation. The resulting new-growth factory includes large newbusiness creation groups, focused project teams, and entrepreneurial guides who help teams rapidly prototype and test new products and business models in the market. The teams follow a step-by-step business development manual and use specialized project and portfolio management tools. Innovation and strategy assessments, once separate, are now combined in revamped executive reviews. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s experience suggests six lessons for leaders looking to build new-growth factories: Coordinate the factory with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core businesses, be a vigilant portfolio manager, start small and grow carefully, create tools for gauging new businesses, make sure the right people are doing the right work, and nurture cross-pollination. ithout a further boost to its organic growth capabilities, the company would still have trouble hitting its targets. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders recognized that the kind of growth the company was after couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t come from simply doing more of the same. It needed to come up with more breakthrough innovationsÃ¢â¬âones that could create completely new markets. And it needed to do this as reliably as Henry FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Highla nd Park factory had rolled out Model Ts. In 2004 Gil Cloyd, then the chief technology officer, and A. G. Lafley, then the CEO, tasked two 30-year PG veterans, John Leikhim and David Goulait, with designing a new-growth factory whose intellectual underpinnings would derive from the Harvard Business School professor Clayton ChristensenÃ¢â¬â¢s disruptive-innovation theory. You read "How PG Tripled Its Innovation Success Rate" in category "Papers" The basic concept of disruptionÃ¢â¬âdriving growth through new offerings that are simpler, more convenient, easier to access, or more affordableÃ¢â¬âwas hardly foreign to PG. Many of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s powerhouse brands, including Tide, Crest, Pampers, and Swiffer, had followed disruptive paths. Leikhim and Goulait, with support from other managers, began by holding a two-day workshop for seven new-product-development teams, guided by facilitators from Innosight (a firm Christensen cofounded). The attendees explored how to shake up embedded ways of thinking that can inhibit disruptive approaches. They formulated creative ways to address critical commercial questionsÃ¢â¬âfor example, whether demand would be sufficient to warrant a new-product launch. Learning from the workshop helped spur the development of new products, such as the probiotic supplement Align, and also bolstered existing ones, such as Pampers. In the years that followed, Leikhim and Goulait shored up the factoryÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation, working with Cloyd and other PG leaders to: Teach senior management and project team members the mind-sets and behaviors that foster disruptive growth. The training, which has changed over time, initially ranged from short modules on topics such as assessing the demand for an early-stage idea to multiday courses in entrepreneurial thinking. Form a group of new-growth-business guides to help teams working on disruptive projects. These experts might, for instance, advise teams to remain small until their projectÃ¢â¬â¢s key commercial questions, such as whether consumers would habitually use the new product, have been answered. The guides include several entrepreneurs who have succeededÃ¢â¬âand, even more important, failedÃ¢â¬âin starting businesses. Develop organizational structures to drive new growth. For example, in a handful of business About the units the company created small groups focused Spotlight Artist Each month we illustrate primarily on new-growth initiatives. The groups our Spotlight package with (which, like the training, have evolved significantly) a series of works from an acaugmented an existing entity, FutureWorks, whose complished artist. We hope charter is to create new brands and business mod- that the lively and cerebral creations of these photograels. Dedicated teams within the groups conducted phers, painters, and instalmarket research, developed technology, created lation artists will infuse our pages with additional energy business plans, and tested assumptions for specific and intelligence and amplify projects. hat are often complex and Produce a process manualÃ¢â¬âa step-by-step abstract concepts. This monthÃ¢â¬â¢s artist is guide to creating new-growth businesses. The Josef Schulz, a German manual includes overarching principles as well as photographer who often detailed procedures and templates to help teams turns his lens on modern industrial constructs and describe opportunities, identify requirements for digitally strips away de? ning success, monitor progress, make go/no-go decisions, details to render moreand more. abstract, universally relRun demonstration projects to showcase the evant images. In the ? rst step IÃ¢â¬â¢m a photographer emerging factoryÃ¢â¬â¢s work. One of these was a line of with his limitations,Ã¢â¬ he pocket-size products called Swash, which quickly once told an interviewer, refresh clothes: For example, someone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s in a Ã¢â¬Å"and then an artist with his freedom of decisions. Ã¢â¬ hurry can give a not-quite-clean shirt a spray rather View more of the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s than putting it through the wash. work at josefschulz. de. June 2011 Harvard Business Review 67 SPOTLIGHT ON PRODUCT INNOVATION Sustaining Commercial Commercial innovations use creative marketing, packaging, and promotional approaches to grow existing o? erings. During the 2010 Winter Olympics, PG ran a series of ads celebrating mothers. The campaign covered 18 brands, was viewed repeatedly by hundreds of millions of consumers, and drove $100 million in revenues. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Types of Innovation Sustaining innovations bring incremental improvements to existing products: a little more cleaning power to a laundry detergent, a better ? avor to a toothpaste. These provide what PG calls Ã¢â¬Å"erÃ¢â¬ bene? sÃ¢â¬âbetter, easier, cheaperÃ¢â¬âthat are important to sustaining share among current customers and getting new people to try a product. Sharpening the Focus By 2008 PG had a working prototype of the factory, but the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation portfolio was weighed down by a proliferation of small projects. A. G. Lafley charged Bob McDonald (then the COO) and CTO Bruce Brown (a coauthor of this article) to dramatically increase innovation output by focusing the factory on fewer but bigger initiatives. McDonald and BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s team drove three critical improvements. First, rather than strictly separating innovations designed to bolster existing product lines from efforts to create new product lines or business models, PG increased its emphasis on an intermediate category: transformational-sustaining innovations, which deliver major new benefits in existing product categories. Consider the Crest brand, the market leader until the late 1990s, when it was usurped by Colgate. Looking for a comeback, in 2000 PG launched a disruptive innovation, Crest Whitestrips, that made teeth whitening at home affordable and easy. In 2006 it introduced Crest Pro-Health, which squeezes half a dozen benefits into one tubeÃ¢â¬âthe toothpaste fights cavities, plaque, tartar, stains, gingivitis, and bad breath. In 2010 it rolled out Crest 3D White, a line of advanced oral care products, including one that whitens teeth in two hours. Such efforts helped Crest retake the lead in many markets. Pro-Health and 3D White were both transformational-sustaining innovations, meant to appeal to current consumers while attracting new ones. These sorts of innovations share an mportant trait with market-creating disruptive innovations: They have a high degree of uncertaintyÃ¢â¬âsomething the factory is specifically designed to manage. Second, PG strengthened organizational supports for the formation of transformationalsustaining and disruptive businesses. It established several new-business-creation groups, larger in size 68 Harvard Business Review June 2011 and scope than any previous growth-factory team, whose resources a nd management are kept carefully separate from the core business. These groupsÃ¢â¬â dedicated teams led by a general managerÃ¢â¬âdevelop ideas that cut across multiple businesses, and also pursue entirely new business opportunities. One group covers all of PGÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty and personal care businesses; another covers its household care business (the parent unit of the fabric-and-household and the family-and-baby-care divisions); a third, FutureWorks, focuses largely on enabling different business models (it helped guide PGÃ¢â¬â¢s recent partnership with the Indian business Healthpoint Services). The new groups supplement (rather than replace) existing supports such as the Corporate Innovation Fund, which provides seed capital to ideas that might otherwise slip through the cracks. PG also created a specialized team called LearningWorks, which helps plan and execute in-market experiments to learn about purchase decisions and postpurchase use. Third, PG revamped its strategy development and review process. Innovation and strategy assessments had historically been handled separately. Now the CEO, CTO, and CFO explicitly link company, business, and innovation strategies. This integration, coupled with new analyses of such issues as competitive factors that could threaten a given business, has surfaced more opportunities for innovation. The process has also prompted examinations of each unitÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"production schedule,Ã¢â¬ or pipeline of growth opportunities, to ensure that itÃ¢â¬â¢s robust enough to deliver against growth goals for the next seven to 10 years. Evaluations are made of individual business units (feminine care, for example) as well as broad sectors (household care). This revised approach calls for each business unit to determine the mix of innovation types it needs to deliver the required growth. HOW PG TRIPLED ITS INNOVATION SUCCESS RATE? HBR. ORG Transformational-Sustaining Transformational-sustaining innovations reframe existing categories. They typically bring order-of-magnitude improvements and fundamental changes to a business and often lead to breakthroughs in market share, pro? t levels, and consumer acceptance. In 2009 PG introduced the wrinkle-reducing cream Olay Pro-X. Launching a $40-a-bottle product in the depths of a recession might seem a questionable strategy. But PG went ahead because it considered the product a transformational-sustaining innovationÃ¢â¬âclinically proven to be as e? ective as its much more expensive prescription counterparts, and superior to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s other antiaging o? erings. The cream and related products generated ? rst-year sales of $50 million in U. S. food retailers and drugstores alone. Disruptive Disruptive innovations represent newto-the-world business opportunities. A company enters entirely new businesses with radically new o? erings, as PG did with Swi? er and Febreze. Running the Factory LetÃ¢â¬â¢s return now to Tide, whose dramatic growth highlights the potential of PGÃ¢â¬â¢s approach. Over the past decade the brand has launched numerous products and product-line extensions, carved new paths in emerging markets, and tested a promising new business model. If you had looked for Tide in a U. S. supermarket 10 years ago, you would have found, for the most part, ordinary bottles and boxes of detergent. Now youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see the Tide name on dozens of products, all with different scents and capabilities. For example, in 2009 PG introduced a line of laundry additives called Tide Stain Release. Within a year, building on 26 patents, it incorporated these additives into a sible to 70% of Indian consumers and has helped to significantly increase TideÃ¢â¬â¢s share in India. More radically, Swash moved the Tide brand out of the laundry room. The line has clear disruptive characteristics: Swash products donÃ¢â¬â¢t clean as thoroughly as laundry detergents or remove wrinkles as effectively as professional pressing. But because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re quick and easy to use, they offer Ã¢â¬Å"good enoughÃ¢â¬ occasional alternatives between washes. Swash took an unconventional path to commercialization. When the products were first sold, in a store near PGÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters in Ohio, they carried a different brand name and had no apparent connection to Tide. After that experiment, PG opened a Ã¢â¬Å"pop upÃ¢â¬ Swash store at The Ohio State University. Both Tide Dry Cleaners is a factory innovation that represents an entirely new business model. new detergent, Tide with Acti-LiftÃ¢â¬âthe first major redesign of TideÃ¢â¬â¢s liquid laundry detergent in a decade. The productÃ¢â¬â¢s launch drove immediate marketshare growth of the Tide brand in the United States. PG has also customized formulations for emerging markets. Ethnographic research showed that about 80% of consumers in India wash their clothes by hand. They had to choose between detergents that were relatively gentle on the skin but not very good at actually cleaning clothes, and more-potent but harsher agents. With the problem clearly identified, in 2009 a team came up with Tide Naturals, which cleaned well without causing irritation. Mindful of the need in emerging markets to provide greater benefit at lower costÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"more for lessÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âPG priced Tide Naturals 30% below comparably effective but harsher products. This made the Tide brand accestests helped the company understand how consumers would buy and use the products, which PG then began selling exclusively through Amazon and other online channels. In early 2011 the company ramped down its promotion of Swash, although learning from the effort will inform its work on other disruptive ideas in the clothes-refreshing space. Whereas Swash was a new product line, Tide Dry Cleaners represents an entirely new business model. It started when a team began exploring ways to disrupt the dry-cleaning market, using proprietary technologies and a unique store design grounded in insights about consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ frustrations with existing options. Many cleaning establishments are dingy, unfriendly places. Customers have to park, walk, and wait. Often the cleanersÃ¢â¬â¢ hours are inconvenient. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s alternative: bright, boldly colored cleaners June 2011 Harvard Business Review 69 SPOTLIGHT ON PRODUCT INNOVATION The FactoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Consumer Research at Work In October 2010 PG launched the Gillette Guard razor in India, a transformational-sustaining innovation whose strategic intent was simple: to provide a cheaper and e? ective alternative for the hundreds of millions of Indians who use double-edged razors. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s researchers spent thousands of hours in the market to understand these consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. They gained important insights by observing men in rural areas who, lacking indoor plumbing, typically shave outdoors using little or no waterÃ¢â¬âand donÃ¢â¬â¢t shave every day. The single-blade Gillette Guard was thus designed to clean easily, with minimal water, and to manage longer stubble. The initial retail price was 15 rupees (33 cents), with re? ll cartridges for ? ve rupees (11 cents). Early tests showed that consumers preferred the new product to double-edged razors by a six-to-one margin. Its breakthrough performance and a? ordability position it for rapid growth. featuring specialized treatments, drive-through windows, and 24-hour storage lockers to facilitate after-hours drop-off and pickup. Using the new-growth factoryÃ¢â¬â¢s process manual, the development team identified key assumptions about the proposed dry cleaners. For example, could the business model generate enough returns to attract store owners willing to pay up to $1 million for franchise rights? In 2009 PGÃ¢â¬â¢s guides helped the team open three pilots in Kansas City to try to find out. That year PG also formed Agile Pursuits Franchising, a subsidiary to oversee such efforts, and transferred ownership of the dry-cleaning venture to FutureWorks, whose main mission is to pursue new business models that lie outside PGÃ¢â¬â¢s established systems. It remains to be seen how Tide Dry Cleaners will fare, but one promising sign came in 2010, when Andrew Cherng, the founder of the Panda Restaurant Group, announced plans to open 150 franchises in four years. He told BusinessWeek, Ã¢â¬Å"I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t around when McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s was taking franchisees, [but] IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to miss this one. Ã¢â¬ To ensure strategic cohesion and smart resource allocation, TideÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation efforts have been closely coordinated through regular dialogues among several leadersÃ¢â¬âCEO McDonald, CTO Brown, the vice-chair of the household business unit, and the president of the fabric care division. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve also been the focus of discussions at Corporate Innovation Fund meetings and similar reviews. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just the methodical pursuit of a single innovation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s part of a steady stream of ideas in developmentÃ¢â¬âa factory humming with work. and learning, and personally engage. Our journey at PG suggests six lessons for leaders looking to create new-growth factories. 1. Closely coordinate the factory and the core business. Leaders sometimes see efforts to foster new growth as completely distinct from efforts to bolster the core; indeed, many in the innovation community have argued as much for years. Our experience indicates the opposite. First, new-growth efforts depend on a healthy core business. A healthy core produces a cash flow that can be invested in new growth. And weÃ¢â¬â¢ve all known times when an ailing core has demanded managementÃ¢â¬â¢s full attention; a healthy core frees leaders to think about more-expansive growth initiatives. Second, a core business is rich with capabilities that can support new-growth efforts. Consider PGÃ¢â¬â¢s excellent relationships with major retailers. Those relationships are a powerful, hard-to-replicate asset that helps the factory expedite new-growth initiatives. Swiffer wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be Swiffer without them. Third, some of the tools for managing core effortsÃ¢â¬âparticularly those that track a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s progressÃ¢â¬âare also useful for managing new-growth efforts. And finally, the factoryÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid-learning approach often yields insights that can strengthen existing product lines. One of the project teams at the 2004 workshop was seeking to spur conversion in emerging markets from cloth to disposable diapers. Subsequent in-market tests yielded a critical discovery: Babies who wore disposable diapers fell asleep 30% faster and slept 30 minutes longer than babies wearing cloth diapersÃ¢â¬âan obvious benefit for infants (and their parents). Advertising campaigns touting this advantage helped make Pampers the number one brand in several emerging markets. 2. Promote a portfolio mind-set. PG communicates to both internal and external stakeholders that it is building a varied portfolio of innovation Lessons for Leaders Efforts to build a new-growth factory in any company will fail unless senior managers create the right organizational structures, provide the proper resources, allow sufficient time for experimentation 70 Harvard Business Review June 2011 HOW PG TRIPLED ITS INNOVATION SUCCESS RATE? HBR. ORG approaches, ranging from sustaining to disruptive ones. See the sidebar Ã¢â¬Å"PGÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Types of Innovation. Ã¢â¬ ) It uses a set of master-planning tools to match the pace of innovation to the overall needs of the business. It also deploys portfolio-optimization tools that help managers identify and kill the least-promising programs and nurture the best bets. These tools create projections for every active idea, including estimates of the financial potential and the human and capital investments that will be required. Some ideas are evaluated with classic net-present-value calculations, others with a risk-adjusted real-option approach, and still others with more-qualitative criteria. Although the tools assemble a rank-ordered list of projects, PGÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio management isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, at its core, a mechanical exercise; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a dialogue about resource allocation and business-growth building blocks. Numerical input informs but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t dictate decisions. A portfolio approach has several benefits. First, it sets up the expectation that different projects will be managed, resourced, and measured in different ways, just as an investor would use different criteria to evaluate an equity investment and a real estate one. Second, because the portfolio consists largely of sustaining and transformational-sustaining efforts, seeing it as a whole highlights the critical importance of these activities, which protect and extend legitimate disagreement about the best way to organize for new growth. Whereas we believe in a factory with relatively strong ties to the core, some advocate a Ã¢â¬Å"skunkworksÃ¢â¬ organization. Others argue for Ã¢â¬Å"distinct but linkedÃ¢â¬ organizations under an Ã¢â¬Å"ambidextrousÃ¢â¬ leader; still others recommend mirroring the structure of a venture capital firm. (PGÃ¢â¬â¢s factory uses several organizational approaches. Treating capability development itself as a new-growth innovation lets companies try different approaches and learn what works best for them. A staged approach serves another important purpose: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a built-in reminder that a new-growth factory is not a quick fix. The factory wonÃ¢â¬â¢t provide a sudden boost to next quarterÃ¢â¬â¢s result s, nor can it instantly rein in an out-of-control core business thatÃ¢â¬â¢s veering from crisis to crisis. GILLETTE GUARD After thousands of hours of research in the ? eld, PG learned that a single-blade razor was a cheaper and e? ective alternative to double-edged razors for many consumers in India. CREST 3D WHITE Usurped by Colgate in the late 1990s, Crest has regained the lead in many markets owing to its introduction of several innovative oral care products, including ones that make teeth whitening at home a? ordable and easy. 4. Create new tools for gauging new businesses. Anticipated and nascent markets are notoriously hard to analyze. Detailed follow-up with one of the project teams that attended the pilot workshop showed PG that it needed new tools for this purpose. PG now conducts Ã¢â¬Å"transaction learning experiments,Ã¢â¬ or TLEs, in which a team Ã¢â¬Å"makes a little and sells a little,Ã¢â¬ thus letting consumers vote with their wallets. Teams have sold small amounts of products online, at mall kiosks, in pop-up stores, and at amusement parksÃ¢â¬âeven in the company store PG now conducts Ã¢â¬Å"transaction learning experiments,Ã¢â¬ which let consumers vote with their wallets. core businesses. Finally, a portfolio approach helps reinforce the message that any project, particularly a disruptive one, may carry substantial risk and might not deliver commercial resultsÃ¢â¬âand thatÃ¢â¬â¢s fine, as long as the portfolio accounts for the risk. 3. Start small and grow carefully. Remember how the new-growth factory began: with a simple two-day workshop. It then expanded to small-scale pilots in several business units before becoming a companywide initiative. Staged investment allows for early, rapid revisionÃ¢â¬âbefore lines scribbled on a hypothetical organizational chart are engraved in stone. It also provides for targeted experimentation. For example, there is and outside company cafeterias. PG devised a venture capital approach to testing the market for Align, its probiotic supplement, providing seed capital for a controlled pilot. The company has also tested entire business modelsÃ¢â¬ârecall the Kansas City pilots of Tide Dry Cleaners. 5. Make sure you have the right people doing the right work. Building the factory forced PG to change the way it staffed certain teams. At any given time the company has hundreds of teams working on various innovation efforts. In the past, most teams consisted mainly of part-time membersÃ¢â¬âemployees who had other responsibilities pulling at them. But disruptive and transformational-sustaining efforts June 2011 Harvard Business Review 71 SPOTLIGHT ON PRODUCT INNOVATION HBR. ORG CONNECT WITH THE AUTHORS Do you have questions or comments about this article? The authors will respond to reader feedback at hbr. org. TIDE DRY CLEANERS Still in an early stage, this innovation arose in part from insights about consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ frustrations with the dinginess and inconvenience of most existing drycleaning establishments. require undivided attention. (As the old saying goes, nine women canÃ¢â¬â¢t make a baby in a month. ) There need to be people who wake up each day and go to sleep each night obsessing about the new business. New-growth teams also need to be small and nimble, and they should include seasoned members. PG found that big teams often bog down because they pursue too many ideas at once, whereas small teams are better able to quickly focus on the mostpromising initiatives. Having several members with substantial innovation experience helps teams confidently make sound judgment calls when data are inconclusive or absent. Finally, building a factory requires a substantial investment in widespread, ongoing training. Changing mind-sets begins, literally, with teaching a new language. Key terms such as Ã¢â¬Å"disruptive innovation,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"job to be done,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"business model,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"critical assumptionsÃ¢â¬ must be clearly and consistently defined. PG reinforces key innovation concepts both at large meetings and at smaller, focused workshops, and in 2007 it established a Ã¢â¬Å"disruptive innovation college. People working on new-growth projects can choose from more than a dozen courses, ranging from basic innovation language to designing and executing a TLE, sketching out a business model, staffing a new-growth team, and identifying a job to be done. 6. Encourage intersections. Successful innovation requires rich cross-pollinat ion both inside and outside the organization. PGÃ¢â¬â¢s Connect + Develop program is part of a larger effort to intersect with other disciplines and gain new perspectives. Over the past few years PG has: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Shared people with noncompeting companies. In 2008 PG and Google swapped two dozen employees for a few weeks. PG wanted greater exposure to online models; Google was interested in learning more about how to build brands. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Engaged even more outside innovators. In 2010 PG refreshed its C+D goals. It aims to become the partner of choice for innovation collaboration, and to triple C+DÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to PGÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation development (which would mean deriving $3 billion of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual sales growth from outside innovators). It has expanded the program to forge additional connections with government labs, universities, small and medium-sized entrepreneurs, consortia, and venture capital firms. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brought in outside talent. PG has traditionally promoted from within. But it recognized that total reliance on this approach could stunt its ability to create new-growth businesses. So it began bringing in high-level people to address needs beyond its core capabilities, as when it hired an outsider to run Agile Pursuits Franchising. In that one stroke, it acquired expertise in franchise-based business models that would have taken years to build organically. SOME THINK itÃ¢â¬â¢s foolish for large companies to even attempt to create innovative-growth businesses. They maintain that organizations should just outsource innovation, by acquiring promising start-ups. But PGÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts appear to be working. Recall that in 2000 only 15% of its innovation efforts met profit and revenue targets. Today the figure is 50%. The past fiscal year was one of the most productive innovation years in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s history, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s three- and five-year innovation portfolios are sufficient to deliver against their growth objectives. Projections suggest that the typical initiative in 2014 and 2015 will have nearly twice the revenue of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s initiatives. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a sixfold increase in output without any significant increase in inputs. Our experience tells us that although individual creativity can be unpredictable and uncontrollable, collective creativity can be managed. Although the next Tide or Crest innovation might stumble, the factoryÃ¢â¬â¢s methodical approach should bring many more innovations successfully to market. The factory process can create sustainable sources of revenue growthÃ¢â¬âno matter how big a company becomes. HBR Reprint R1106C At PGÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"disruptive innovation college,Ã¢â¬ people working on new-growth projects can choose from more than a dozen courses. 72 Harvard Business Review June 2011 Harvard Business Review Notice of Use Restrictions, May 2009 Harvard Business Review and Harvard Business Publishing Newsletter content on EBSCOhost is licensed for the private individual use of authorized EBSCOhost users. It is not intended for use as assigned course material in academic institutions nor as corporate learning or training materials in businesses. Academic licensees may not use this content in electronic reserves, electronic course packs, persistent linking from syllabi or by any other means of incorporating the content into course resources. Business licensees may not host this content on learning management systems or use persistent linking or other means to incorporate the content into learning management systems. Harvard Business Publishing will be pleased to grant permission to make this content available through such means. For rates and permission, contact permissions@harvardbusiness. org. How to cite How PG Tripled Its Innovation Success Rate, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
The essay is a reaction to an article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Improving Parent Involvement in Schools: A Cultural PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ written by Keane Theresa published in 2007.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on The Importance of Family and Community Engagement in Elementary Schools specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The article contends that parent involvement is of paramount significance to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ success in academic just like teachers are. Additionally, the barrier to parent involvement and what can be done to curb them are also discussed in the article. Despite the significance attached to parent involvement, the article notes that although standards for students are on the rise, parent involvement is on the decline. Being able to point out the factors leading to the decline will help address the problem. When considering the link between parent involvement and achievement, the author notes that involvement mean s different things to different people. There are indeed benefits when all the factors deemed to be parent involvement are considered. It has been shown that parent involvement to issues relating to their children helps them achieve more. In situations where parents actively monitor the progress of their student, they will be able to know their areas of weakness and try to help them. Additionally, when parents are involved, they create a learning environment back at home. This has been seen when they help their children do homework and encourage a culture of learning. Similarly, parents do encourage their children by making them know they are unique and are capable of achieving academic excellence. In terms of social behavior, parent involvement help in shaping the manner of student and will try to avoid being in trouble.Advertising Looking for article on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly and more i mportantly, student whose parent are actively involved in their learning develop positive attitude hence have lower chances of dropping out of schools. All these help teachers to concentrate in imparting knowledge rather than doing what parent opt to have done back home. However, there are barriers that block or hinder parent involvement in the academic lives of their children. The author acknowledges the woks of other scholars such as Lazar Slostad, 1999 who held that parent do care very much about the academic lives of their children. However, parents hold a negative perception about involvement since there are no frameworks in place that make teachers and parents to understand each others as well as network. Inadequate preparation of teachers to work with other adults or parent is the main challenge in parent involvement. Other barriers include cultural different; institutions where teachers are highly respected parent activities might be seen as an interruption and hence unwelc ome. Additionally race, language barrier, lack of transportation and economical status of an individual also acts as a barrier to active involvement of parents in school activities. Lastly decline in family which has seen to it that there is a rise in single parents also contributes to the problem. It is true that single parents are not able to divide their time appropriately to indulge in all activities that will foster the academic lives of their children. With this barriers, there is need to have in place mechanisms that will help reverse the trend. One approach can entail having conferences per semester where thorough consultation are made before decision are arrived at. Additionally, having in place an initiative in which parents will be educated on various issues regarding leadership, communication as well as importance of actively taking part in school activities is called for.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on The Importance of Family and Community Eng agement in Elementary Schools specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly creation of policies and guidelines that will clearly outline the goals and expectations for parents and teachers will help in overcoming the barriers previously mentioned. Training teachers on how best to work and network with other adults (parents) will go an extra mile in creating an environment where parents will feel welcomed and give their best in terms of involvement. In my view encouraging parents to volunteer in issues such as school building will encourage a culture of parent involvement. Reference Keane, T. (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Improving parent involvement in schools: A Cultural PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ River Academic Journal, 3(2): 1-4. Lazar, A. Slostad, F. (1999). Ã¢â¬Å"How to overcome obstacles to parent-teacher partnershipsÃ¢â¬ Clearing House, 72(4): 206-210. This article on The Importance of Family and Community Engagement in Elementary Schools was written and submitted by user Desmond Q. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Urban Poor essays Urban Social Movements In Latin America: Latin America is made up of diverse countries, peoples and cultures. It is a continent rich in resources; however, it has many problems facing its people, such as; debt, urbanization, environmental issues, multinationals and continuing wars and unrest. Many people in Latin America withstand sever hardship because of these issues and how their governments lack the ability to respond. This essay will examine 1 key issue facing Latin America urbanization. This issue will be analyzed on more micro level through local social movements and how particular communities have come together to meet their needs and face an often-imposing government. This essay will concentrate on the time during the 1980s, however, will have to add some historical context leading up to this period. The last half of the 20-century saw many rural third world nations become rapidly urbanized. Latin America was one of these continents to transform. Most of this is due to migration after the Second World War where migrants from rural areas were forced to leave to find work in order to survive. Many countries in this area couldnt cope with this urban growth, which led to people living in conditions well below the poverty line. Families migrating to the city centers quickly erected independent houses through squatting or claiming land through land invasions on land surrounding the city that was either owned by the government or privately. Food, shelter and community services were the main issues that these people dealt with everyday often with little or no help from their government. Urbanization is caused by many factors, studies have been done in modernization theories, dependency theories and urban bias all to analyze how and why urbanization exists. This essay doesnt explore how urbanization has come about but more how different communities have coped and organized social movements to change th...
Monday, March 2, 2020
How to Generate Hundreds of Writing Ideas How to Generate Hundreds of Writing Ideas How to Generate Hundreds of Writing Ideas By Ali Hale Do you ever feel completely out of ideas? Sometimes, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got time to write Ã¢â¬â but IÃ¢â¬â¢m just not feeling inspired. I might want to write an article for one of my blogs, or work on a short story. I may just want to write something personal, perhaps a letter to a friend, or a journal piece, but for some reason I canÃ¢â¬â¢t think up a topic. Inspiration doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always come easily. But for any writer, itÃ¢â¬â¢s vital to be able to generate ideas and get on with the work. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to cover some great ways of coming up with more ideas than youÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever be able to use Ã¢â¬ ¦ Brain-Storm or Spider-Chart I like to brainstorm ideas on paper, though there are lots of pieces of software available Ã¢â¬â these might be useful if you want to develop an idea into a full article, as they allow you to move things around. For the low-tech method, though, just grab a bit of paper Ã¢â¬â a full blank sheet of computer paper works well, as itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to give yourself plenty of room! Write your topic (maybe the name of your blog, or the subject for a short story writing competition) in the center Ã¢â¬ ¦ and start jotting ideas around the edge. Timed Ideas Set a stopclock for five minutes and start writing. Scribble down as many ideas as you can in that time, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t let yourself stop Ã¢â¬â keep your pen moving, or keep typing, until the timer goes off. The pressure of time can force you to be creative: youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find yourself jotting things almost in desperation, but when you look back over the ideas that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve written down, you may well find some gems in there. Lists of 50 or 100 Ideas When IÃ¢â¬â¢m coming up with topics for blog posts, I often start by opening up a new document and typing Ã¢â¬Å"50 Ideas for My BlogÃ¢â¬ and then sitting there until I come up with all fifty! For the truly brave, 100 is even better. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll take you a while to get there, but the more ideas you write down, the more youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find yourself coming up with new and different possibilities. If you really want to challenge yourself, combine this with the stopclock idea above (IÃ¢â¬â¢d suggest allowing at least fifteen minutes). Joining the Dots You can use your list or your spider diagram for this. Draw lines to connect related ideas together: sometimes one thought wonÃ¢â¬â¢t in itself be enough for you to write a whole article from it, but several points could combine together well. Alternatively, one topic may be far too broad Ã¢â¬â so jot down sub-points around it. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re brainstorming for fiction, try combining ideas from opposite sides of your page Ã¢â¬â you could even stick a pencil in at random. Juxtaposing two very different elements can give you that spark you need to come up with something truly creative. Using Other PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ideas There are hundreds of ways to find ideas ready for the taking. If you write fiction, try using writing bursts or writing prompts. You could try picking two novels at random from your shelf, choosing a character from each one Ã¢â¬â and then combining those characters. Or how about borrowing the plot from a fairy tale or traditional story? (Think thatÃ¢â¬â¢s cheating? Shakespeare did itÃ¢â¬ ¦) For non-fiction writers, try using a list of famous quotes to spark off new ideas for articles. Responding to someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s words Ã¢â¬â whether you agree, disagree, or go off on a tangent Ã¢â¬â can start to get your own ideas flowing. How do you come up with ideas? Do you ever feel uninspired and plough on regardless? Share your tips in the comments. If you try some of the above methods, itÃ¢â¬â¢d be great to hear how you get on! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:10 Rules for Writing Numbers and NumeralsHow Long Should a Paragraph Be?Preposition Review #1: Chance of vs. Chance for
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Do you think that juvenile offenders who have committed a homicide should be tried as adults - Essay Example ne has done; so a young offender should at least be evaluated on the matter of psychological abnormality and must be provided with special mental treatment along with some legal measures of punishment like a short sentence in prison. The main question is whether children are capable of acknowledging their actions and their consequences. Thus the claims concerning lack of brain development in kids doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t justify any criminal actions that children may do. If it was so, then any juvenile offender would be excused just because it was not his fault for commiting the crime, but it was lack of brain development which made him act cruelly. Such excuses would let children do whatever they want and no one could have blamed them for anything. However, a great argument was stated by representatives of the National Organization of Victims of Juvenile Offenders who reasonably noted in one of NY Times articles concerning this issue: Ã¢â¬Å"While juvenile advocates often note that a youthÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is still developing, we all learn from an extremely early age that killing is wrongÃ¢â¬ (Kozlowska n.pag.). The statement definitely makes sense as it is difficult to imagine a child who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that killing is a bad thing to do. Thus it means that when a juvenile offender was about to make a crime, he had already known that the action was extremely bad and illegal. Moreover, it is obvious that if someone close to a child died, the child would feel grief, because one would know that death is a bad thing, especially when people kill each other. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t this mean that kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ brain is developed enough to understand moral standards and discern good from bad? Although when a child kills a human, for some reasons people say that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s brains are not developed enough, so they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be charged for anything. The situation creates a kind of double standard regarding the issue. As far as an action must be evaluated according to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s acknowledgement of what is good
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Case study of Tata Cross Culture analysis - Essay Example Since being advertised in strongly positive terms as cheapest car of the world, it has been the idle gossip around the world (Stokes, Wilson, & Mador, 2010). Significant people of large organisations have been driving in by numbers only to take a look at the most outstanding work of creative engineering in the shape of Ã¢â¬Å"Tata Nano.Ã¢â¬ Nano is a new form of cars of this century which represents a philosophy of an investor who deliberately decided to go against the prevailing wisdom of other investors of lighter, smaller, cheaper and signify a new age in cheap private transportation and with a possibility of becoming actual, "worldwide deadlock." The word "Nano" is derived from the Greek word Ã¢â¬ËNanosÃ¢â¬â¢ which means "small" in the Indic language spoken by the people of India who live in Gujarat in western India which is also the language of the Tata GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s founders (Stokes, Wilson, & Mador, 2010). In 2003, under the Chairmanship of Mr. Ratan Tata, the project to manufacture a car while keeping the price to one Lac rupees was started. The main aim of this Ã¢â¬Å"Tata Nano planÃ¢â¬ was the demand and requirement of many families of India who could not afford 4 wheel cars instead utilized Motorbikes and bicycles for the purpose, and was grounded on the successful project of low cost four wheeled Ã¢â¬Å"Ace truckÃ¢â¬ by the company in May 2005 (Boone & Kurtz, 2011). CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Profile In 1945, Tata Motors was established. ... Among the 3 best companies in the segment of a vehicle carrying passengers, Tata Motors is also included. Tata Motors has manufactured several outstanding cars in utility, compact and medium-size segment. It furnishes its services and products on a worldwide ground. Within India it offers 5 different categories of services and products namely trucks, commercial passenger carriers, passenger cars, defence vehicles, and utility vehicles. Why Tata Nano Is Important The Chairman of Tata Group perceived the thought behind the Tata Nano, when he saw a four member family was travelling via motor scooter in rain. At that time the idea of Nano came in his mind and he desired to manufacture an automobile that could be safe, affordable and could be used in all weather condition (Byron, 2008). (Byron, 2008) This desire of Mr. Ratan Tata emerged as the most inspirational plan of Tata motors till time when the Chairman of Tata Group Mr Ratan Tata stated his thought of Tata Nano to Mr. Ravi Kant, h is managing director. From his managing experience Mr. Ravi Kant had discovered that citizens desire to shift from 2 wheelers vehicle to 4 wheelers vehicles but they have not got enough money for it. Automobile industry of India has an average growth rate of twelve percent for the past decade. Despite that this industry sold only 1.3 million vehicles for passengers in the financial year ending on March 2006. This shows that a billion of peoples of India purchase approximately the equal quantity of cars in a year as three hundred million peoples of US purchase in a period of month. However, this situation could be changed only when the cost of 4 wheels vehicle could be lowered to the extent that